TRANSFORMER

TRANSFORMER PART 1

Transformer is a device by which an alternating current may be decreased or increased. This is based on the principle of mutual induction.
Construction: It consist of a laminated core of soft iron , on which two coils pf isolated copper wire are separately wound. These coils are coupled through mutual induction. The number of coils in these coils are different. Out of this coil one coil is called primary coil and the other coil is called secondary coil. The terminal of primary coils is connected to the mains and the terminal of the secondary coil is connected to the external circuit in which the alternating current to the desired voltage is required.

Construction

Transformer are of two types:
  1. Step up transformer: It converts low voltage to high voltage. The turns in secondary coil is more than the number of turns in primary coil. i.e. (Ns >Np).
  2. Step down transformer: It converts high voltage to the low voltage. The number of turns in secondary coil is less than the number off turns in primary coil i.e. (Ns<Np).

2. Step down transformer

Working: When a.c. source is connected to the end of primary coil, the current changes continuously in the primary coil; due to which the magnetic flux lined with the secondary coil changes continuously, therefore the alternating current of same emf is developed across the secondary.
If Np and Ns be the number of turns in primary and secondary coils and there is no leakage of flux then according to Faraday’s law of EMI

Working

 

 

If Ip and Is are the currents in primary & secondary coils and there is no loss of energy.
OUTPUT POWER = INPUT POWER

OUTPUT POWER = INPUT POWER

 

Where ‘r’ is called as transformer ratio. For step up transformer r>1 and for step down r<1.
Efficiency: The ratio of output power to the input power is called efficiency.

Efficiency

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Hi , My Name is Shubham Maurya and i am currently working as a Project Manager.

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